In recent years many opponents of the pre-trib rapture have made an issue out of the relativly recent recovery of this biblical truth since the time of J.N. Darby. However, Grant R. Jeffrey, a member of the Pre-Trib Study Group, has found an ancient citation from the following sermon by Pseudo-Ephraem which clearly teaches that believers will be raptured and taken to heaven before the tribulation. Grant Jeffery ran across this historically important citation in Paul J. Alexander's The Byzantine Apocalyptic Tradition (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), p. 210. Below we are reproducing an English translation of the Latin, which is also included, so that those interested in this matter can examine the text for themselves. The English translation of the Latin was provided by Cameron Rhoades, instructor of Latin at Tyndale Theological Seminary, Ft. Worth, Texas. Pseudo-Ephraem's rapture statement occurs twice in Section 2, which we have highlighted in bold-faced type. The Latin text is produced (from four manuscripts) in C.P. Caspari's Briefe, Abhandlungen und Predigten aus den zwei letzten Jahrhunderten des kirchlichen Altertums und dem Anfang des Mittelater, Christiania, 1890, pp. 208-20.
Dearly beloved brothers, believe the Holy Spirit who speaks in us. We have already told you that the end of the world is near, the consummation remains. Has not faith withered away among mankind? How many foolish things are seen among youths, how many crimes among prelates, how many lies among priests, how many perjuries among deacons! There are evil deeds among the ministers, adulteries in the aged, wantonness in the youths--in mature women false faces, in virgins dangerous traces! In the midst of all this there are the wars with the Persians, and we see struggles with diverse nations threatening and "kingdom rising against kingdom'' (Matt. 24:7). When the Roman empire begins to be consumed by the sword, the coming of the Evil One is at hand. It is necessary that the world come to an end at the completion of the Roman empire.
In those days two brothers will come to the Roman empire who will rule with one mind; but because one will surpass the other, there will be a schism between them. And so the Adversary will be loosed and will stir up hatred between the Persian and Roman empires. In those days many will rise up against Rome; the Jewish people will be her adversaries. There will be stirrings of nations and evil reports, pestilences, famines, and earth quakes in various places. All nations will receive captives; there will be wars and rumors of wars. From the rising to the setting of the sun the sword will devour much. The times will be so dangerous that in fear and trembling they will not permit thought of better things, because many will be the oppressions and desolations of regions that are to come.
We ought to understand thoroughly therefore, my brothers, what is imminent or overhanging. Already there have been hunger and plagues, violent movements of nations and signs, which have been predicted by the Lord, they have already been fulfilled (consummated), and there is not other which remains, except the advent of the wicked one in the completion of the Roman kingdom. Why therefore are we occupied with worldly business, and why is our mind held fixed on the lusts of the world or on the anxieties of the ages? Why therefore do we not reject every care of worldly business, and why is our mind held fixed on the lusts of the world or on the anxieties of the ages? Why therefore do we not reject every care of earthly actions and prepare ourselves for the meeting of the Lord Christ, so that he may draw us from the confusion, which overwhelms all the world? Believe you me, dearest brother, because the coming (advent) of the Lord is nigh, believe you me, because the end of the world is at hand, believe me, because it is the very last time. Or do you not believe unless you see with your eyes? See to it that this sentence be not fulfilled among you of the prophet who declares: "Woe to those who desire to see the day of the Lord!" For all the saints and elect of God are gathered, prior to the tribulation that is to come, and are taken to the Lord lest they see the confusion that is to overwhelm the world because of our sins. And so, brothers most dear to me, it is the eleventh hour, and the end of the world comes to the harvest, and angels, armed and prepared, hold sickles in their hands, awaiting the empire of the Lord. And we think that the earth exists with blind infidelity, arriving at its downfall early. Commotions are brought forth, wars of diverse peoples and battles and incursions of the barbarians threaten, and our regions shall be desolated, and we neither become very much afraid of the report nor of the appearance, in order that we may at least do penance; because they hurl fear at us, and we do not wish to be changed, although we at least stand in need of penance for our actions!
When therefore the end of the world comes, there arise diverse wars, commotions on all sides, horrible earthquakes, perturbations of nations, tempests throughout the lands, plagues, famine, drought throughout the thoroughfares, great danger throughout the sea and dry land, constant persecutions, slaughters and massacres everywhere, fear in the homes, panic in the cities, quaking in the thoroughfares, suspicions in the male, anxiety in the streets. In the desert people become senseless, spirits melt in the cities. A friend will not be grieved over a friend, neither a brother for a brother, nor parents for their children, nor a faithful servant for his master, but one inevitability shall overwhelm them all; neither is anyone able to be recovered in that time, who has not been made completely aware of the coming danger, but all people, who have been constricted by fear, are consumed because of the overhanging evils.
Whenever therefore the earth is agitated by the nations, people will hide themselves from the wars in the mountains and rocks, by caves and caverns of the earth, by graves and memorials of the dead, and there, as they waste away gradually by fear, they draw breath, because there is not any place at all to flee, but there will be concession and intolerable pressure. And those who are in the east will flee to the west, and moreover, those who are in the west shall flee to the east, and there is not a safer place anywhere, because the world shall be overwhelmed by worthless nations, whose aspect appears to be of wild animals more than that of men. Because those very much horrible nations, most profane and most defiled, who do not spare lives, and shall destroy the living from the dead, shall consume the dead, they eat dead flesh, they drink the blood of beasts, they pollute the world, contaminate all things, and the one who is able to resist them is not there. In those days people shall not be buried, neither Christian, nor heretic, neither Jew, nor pagan, because of fear and dread there is not one who buries them; because all people, while they are fleeing, ignore them.
Whenever the days of the times of those nations have been fulfilled, after they have destroyed the earth, it shall rest; and now the kingdom of the Romans is removed from everyday life, and the empire of the Christians is handed down by God and Peter; and then the consummation comes, when the kingdom of the Romans begins to be fulfilled, and all dominions and powers have been fulfilled. Then that worthless and abominable dragon shall appear, he, whom Moses named in Deuteronomy, saying:-Dan is a young lion, reclining and leaping from Basan. Because he reclines in order that he may seize and destroy and slay. Indeed (he is) a young whelp of a lion not as the lion of the tribe of Judah, but roaring because of his wrath, that he may devour. "And he leaps out from Basan." "Basan" certainly is interpreted "confusion." He shall rise up from the confusion of his iniquity. The one who gathers together to himself a partridge the children of confusion, also shall call them, whom he has not brought forth, just as Jeremiah the prophet says. Also in the last day they shall relinquish him just as confused.
When therefore the end of the world comes, that abominable, lying and murderous one is born from the tribe of Dan. He is conceived from the seed of a man and from an unclean or most vile virgin, mixed with an evil or worthless spirit. But that abominable corrupter, more of spirits than of bodies, while a youth, the crafty dragon appears under the appearance of righteousness, before he takes the kingdom. Because he will be craftily gentle to all people, not receiving gifts, not placed before another person, loving to all people, quiet to everyone, not desiring gifts, appearing friendly among close friends, so that men may bless him, saying;-he is a just man, not knowing that a wolf lies concealed under the appearance of a lamb, and that a greedy man is inside under the skin of a sheep.
But when the time of the abomination of his desolation begins to approach, having been made legal, he takes the empire, and, just as it is said in the Psalm:-They have been made for the undertaking for the sons of Loth, the Moabites and the Ammanites shall meet him first as their king. Therefore, when he receives the kingdom, he orders the temple of God to be rebuilt for himself, which is in Jerusalem; who, after coming into it, he shall sit as God and order that he be adored by all nations, since he is carnal and filthy and mixed with worthless spirit and flesh. Then that eloquence shall be fulfilled of Daniel the prophet:-And he shall not know the God of their fathers, and he shall not know the desires of women. Because the very wicked serpent shall direct every worship to himself. Because he shall put forth an edict so that people may be circumcised according to the rite of the old law. Then the Jews shall congratulate him, because he gave them again the practice of the first covenant; then all people from everywhere shall flock together to him at the city of Jerusalem, and the holy city shall be trampled on by the nations for forty-two months, just as the holy apostle says in the Apocalypse, which become three and a half years, 1,260 days.
In these three years and a half the heaven shall suspend its dew; because there will be no rain upon the earth, and the clouds shall cease to pass through the air, and the stars shall be seen with difficulty in the sky because of the excessive dryness, which happens in the time of the very fierce dragon. Because all great rivers and very powerful fountains that overflow with themselves shall be dried up, torrents shall dry up their water-courses because of the intolerable age, and there will be a great tribulation, as there has not been, since people began to be upon the earth, and there will be famine and an insufferable thirst. And children shall waste away in the bosom of their mothers, and wives upon the knees of their husbands, by not having victuals to eat. Because there will be in those days lack of bread and water, and no one is able to sell or to buy of the grain of the fall harvest, unless he is one who has the serpentine sign on the forehead or on the hand. Then gold and silver and precious clothing or precious stones shall lie along the streets, and also even every type of pearls along the thoroughfares and streets of the cities, but there is not one who may extend the hand and take or desire them, but they consider all things as good as nothing because of the extreme lack and famine of bread, because the earth is not protected by the rains of heaven, and there will be neither dew nor moisture of the air upon the earth. But those who wander through the deserts, fleeing from the face of the serpent, bend their knees to God, just as lambs to the adders of their mothers, being sustained by the salvation of the Lord, and while wandering in states of desertion, they eat herbs.
Then, when this inevitability has overwhelmed all people, just and unjust, the just, so that they may be found good by their Lord; and indeed the unjust, so that they may be damned forever with their author the Devil, and, as God beholds the human race in danger and being tossed about by the breath of the horrible dragon, he sends to them consolatory proclamation by his attendants, the prophets Enoch and Elijah, who, while not yet tasting death, are the servants for the heralding of the second coming of Christ, and in order to accuse the enemy. And when those just ones have appeared, they confuse indeed the antagonistic serpent with his cleverness and they call back the faithful witnesses to God, in order to (free them) from his seduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
And when the three and a half years have been completed, the time of the Antichrist, through which he will have seduced the world, after the resurrection of the two prophets, in the hour which the world does not know, and on the day which the enemy of son of perdition does not know, will come the sign of the Son of Man, and coming forward the Lord shall appear with great power and much majesty, with the sign of the wood of salvation going before him, and also even with all the powers of the heavens with the whole chorus of the saints, with those who bear the sign of the holy cross upon their shoulders, as the angelic trumpet precedes him, which shall sound and declare: Arise, O sleeping ones, arise, meet Christ, because his hour of judgment has come! Then Christ shall come and the enemy shall be thrown into confusion, and the Lord shall destroy him by the spirit of his mouth. And he shall be bound and shall be plunged into the abyss of everlasting fire alive with his father Satan; and all people, who do his wishes, shall perish with him forever; but the righteous ones shall inherit everlasting life with the Lord forever and ever.
Fratres karissimi, spiritui sancto credite, qui loquitur in nobis. Iam antea diximus, quia mundi finis in proximo est, et consummatio superest. Numquid non in hominibus prima fides emarcuit? Quam uidentur in pueris . . . . . . . ., in antistibus criminosa, in sacerdotibus falsidici, in leuitis periuria, in ministris maleficia, in senioribus adulteria, in iuuenibus luxuria, in mulieribus falsus aspectus, in uirginibus adulter affectus! Et in his omnibus bella Persarum sunt, ac diuersarum gentium inminere et regnum aduersus regnum insurgere . . . . . . .; et cum coeperit regnum Romanorum gladio consummari, adest aduentus mali. In expletione enim Romani regni necesse est saeculum consummari. In illis diebus ueniunt ad regnum Romanum duo fratres, et uno quidem animo praesunt, sed quoniam unus praecedit alium, fiet inter eos scidium. Soluitur itaque aduersarius et excitabit odium inter regna Persarum et Romanorum. In illis diebus multi consurgunt contra regnum Romanum, et populus Iudaeorum aduersarii eius erunt. Erunt enim commotiones gentium et auditiones malae, et erunt pestilentiae et fames et terrae motus per loca, et captiui ducentur in omnes gentes, et erunt poelia et opiniones proeliorum, et multa comedet gladius a solis ortu usque ad occasum. Et erunt tempora periculosa nimis, quae non sinunt mentem de melioribus cogitare prae timore et perturbatione, cum multae pressurae et desolationes regionum aduenerint.
Debemus itaque, fratres mei, intellegere, quid inmineat uel incumbat. Iam facta sunt fames et pestilentiae, commotines gentium et signa, quae a Domino praedicta sunt, iam consummata sunt, et non est aliud, quod superest, nisi aduentus mali in expletione regni Romani. Quid ergo occupamur in terrenis negotiis, et mens nostra adfixa tenetur in concupiscentiis mundi uel sollicitudinibus saecularium? Quid ergo non proicimus a nobis omnem actuum terrenorum sollicitudinem et nosmet ipsos praeparamus in occursum domini Christi, ut nos eruat a confusione, quae uniuersum obruet mundum? Credite mihi, fratres karissimi, quia aduentus Domini prope est, credite mihi, quia mundi finis in proximo est, credite mihi, quia nouissima hora est. Aut, nisi oculis uestris uideritis, non creditis? Uidete, ne in uobis conpleatur prophetae illa sententia dicentis: Uae his, qui concupiscunt uidere diem Domini! Omnes enim sancti et electi Dei ante tribulationem, quae uentura est, colliguntur et ad Dominum adsumuntur, ne quando uideant confusionem, quae uniuersum propter peccata nostra obruet mundum. Itaque, fatres karissimi mihi, undecima hora est, et finis huius mundi ad metendum peruenit, et angeli, accincti et praeparati, falces in manibus tenent, Domini expectantes imperium. Et nos caeca infidelitate mundum ad occasum peruenientem mane putamus existere. Commotiones gignuntur, bella diuersarum gentium proeliaque et incursiones barbarorum inminent, et regiones nostrae desolabuntur, et nos nec auditum, nec aspectum pertimescimus, ut poenitentiam utique agamus; etiam nobis metum incutiunt, et nec sic conuerti uolumus, cum indigeamus utique poenitentia pro nostris facinoribus!
Cum ergo aduenerit mundi finis, consurgunt bella diuersa, commotiones undique, terrae motus horribiles, perturbationes gentium, tempestates per loca, pestilentiae, fames, sitis per itinera, pericula magna per mare et aridam, persecutiones assiduae, occisiones atque iugulationes ubique, timor in domibus, pauor in urbibus, tremor in itineribus, suspectiones in mari, sollicitudo in plateis. In deserto obstupescunt homines, in ciuitatibus liquefiunt animae. Non dolebit amicus super amicum, nec frater pro fratre, nec parentes pro filiis, nec seruus fidelis pro domino, sed una necessitas operiet uniuersos, nec quisquam potest reperiri in tempore illo, qui non totus ad periculum [proprium intentus] sit, sed omnes, timore constricti, tabescunt ob incumbentia mala.
Cumque igitur concutietur terra a gentibus bellicis abscondent se homines in montibus et saxis, per speluncas et cauernas terrae, per sepulchra et monumenta mortuorum et illic a pauore contabescentes spirant, quia non est quoquam fugere, sed erit undique concessio et pressura itolerabilis. Et qui in oriente sunt, fugient ad occidentem, qui autem sunt in occidente, fugient ad orientem, et non est locus tutior usquam, quia operietur mundus a nequissimis gentibus, quarum aspectus ferarum magis quam hominum esse uidetur. Gentes enim illae horribiles nimis, profanissimae et coinquinatae, quae nec uiuis parcunt, nec mortuis uiuos conterent, mortuos comedent, carnem morticinam edunt, sanguinem iumentorum bibunt, terram polluunt, uniuersa contaminant, et qui resistere possit, non est. In illius diebus non sepelientur homines, nec Christianus, nec haereticus, nec Iudaeus, nec paganus, quia prae pauore et formidine non est, qui humet eos; omnes namque fugientes semet ipsos ignorant.
Cumque conpleti fuerint dies temporum gentium illarum, postquam terram conrumperint, requiescet; et iam reqnum Romanorum tollitur de medio, et Christianorum imperium traditur Deo et Petri; et tunc uenit consummatio, cum coeperit consummari Romanorum regnum, et expleti fuerint omnes principatus et potestates. Tunc apparebit ille nequissimus et abominabilis draco, ille, quem appellauit Moyses in Deuteronomio, dicens: Dan catulus leonis, accubans et exiliens ex Basan. Accubat enim, ut rapiat et perdat et mactet. Catulus leonis uero non sicut leo de tribu Iuda, sed propter iram rugiens, ut deuoret. Ex Basan autem exiliet. Basan quippe interpretatur confusio. Ex confusione iniquitatis suae consurget. Qui sicut perdix colliget sibi filios confusionis, et multiplicabit agere, et uocat, quos non genuit, sicut dicit Hieremias propheta. Etiam in nouissimo die relinquent illum uelut confusum.
Cum ergo uenerit mundi finis, ille nefandus, mendax et homicida de tribu nascitur Dan. Ex semine uiri et ex inmunda uel turpissima uirgine, malo spiritu uel nequissimo mixto, concipitur. Sed nefandus ille conruptor potius animarum quam corporum, dumque adulescens, subdolus draco sub specie institiae uidetur uersari, antequam sumat imperium. Erit enim omnibus subdole placidus, munera non suscipiens, personam non praeponeus, amabilis omnibus, quietus uniuersis, xenia non appetens, affabilis apparens inter proximos, ita ut beatificent eum homines, dicentes: Iustus homo hic est, nescientes, lupum latere sub specie agni, et rapacem esse intrinseeus sub pelle ouili.
Sed cum coeperit adpropinquare tempus abominationis desolationis eius, factus legitimus, sumet inperium, et, sicut dicitur in psalmo: Facti sunt in susceptionem filiis Loth, occurrent ei primi Moabitae et Ammanitae tamquam suo regi. Cum ergo regnum acceperit, iubet, sibi reaedificari templum Dei, quod est in Hierusalem; qui ingressus in eo sedebit ut Deus et iubet, se adorari ab omnibus gentibus, cum sit carnalis et inmundus et nequissimo spiritu et carne commixtus. Tunc conplebitur illud eloquium Danielis prophetae: Et deum paturm suorum nescibit, neque desideria mulierum cognoscet. Omnem enim cultum ad se conuertet nequissimus serpens. Proponet namque edictum, ut circumcidantur homines secundum ritum legis antiquae. Tunc gratulabuntur ei Iudaei, eo quod eis reddiderit usm prioris testamenti; tunc confluent ad eum in ciuitatem Hierusalem undique omnes, et calcabitur a gentibus urbs sancta menses quadraginta duo, sicut sanctus apostolus in Apocalypsi dicit, qui fiunt anni tres et dimidium, dies mille CCLX.
In his tribus annis et dimidio suspendet caelum rorem suum; pluuia enim super terram non erit, et nubes discurrere per aërem cessabunt, et stellae difficile uidebuntur in caelo prae nimia siccitate, quae fit in tempore saeuissimi draconis. Siccabunt enim uniuersa flumina magna et fontes inundantes sibi ualidissimi, torrentes aridabunt uenas suas propter
intolerabilem aestum, et erit tribulatio magna, qualis non fuit, ex quo homines coeperunt esse super terram, et erit fames et sitis inportabilis. Et tabescent filii in sinu matrum suarum, et coniuges super genua uirorum suorum, non habentibus escas ad comedendum. Erit enim in illis diebus penuria panis et aquae, et nemo potest uenundare uel emere de frumento caducitatis, nisi qui serpentinum signum in fronte aut in manu habuerit. Tunc iacebunt aurum et argentum per plateas et indumenta pretiosa uel lapides pretiosi, nec non et omne genus margaritarum per uicos et plateas urbium, et non est, qui manum extendat et tollat uel concupiscat, sed pro
nihilo contemplantur uniuersa prae nimia penuria et inedia panis, quia non tuetur terra ab imbribus caeli, nec ros, nec aurarum humor erit super terram. Illi autem, qui per deserta uagantur, fugientes a facie serpentis, curuant genua sua ad Deum, quemadmodum agni ad ubera matrum, salutare Domini sustinentes, errantes per solitudines edunt herbas.
Tunc, cum ista necessitas operuerit uniuersos, iustos et impios, iustos, ut domino suo probentur, impios uero, ut cum suo auctore diabolo in aeternum damnentur, aspiciens Deus humanum genus periclitantes et afflatu draconis horribilis fluctuantes, mittit eis consolatoriam praedicationem per famulos suos, prophetas Enoch et Heliam, qui, necdum mortem gustantes, ad pronuntiandum secundum aduentum Christi, et ut arguant inimicum, seruati sunt. Cumque iusti apparuerint illi, confundunt quidem aduersarium serpentem cum eius calliditate et reuocant aduocatos fideles ad Deum, ut ab eius seductione . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cumque peractum fuerit triennium et dimidium, tempus Antichristi, per quod seduxerit mundum, post resurrectionem duorum prophetarum, in hora, quam ignorat mundus, et in die quem nescit inimicus uel perditionis filius, adueniet filii hominis signum, et prodiens apparebit Dominus cum uirtute magna et maiestate multa, signo praeeunte eum salutaris ligni, nec non et omnibus uirtutibus caelorum cum uniuerso choro sanctorum signum sanctae crucis gestantibus humeris, praecedente ante illum tuba angelica, quae intonabit et dicet: Surgite, dormientes, surgite, occurrite Christo, quia uenit hora iudicii eius! Tunc superueniet Christus et confundetur inimicus, et interficiet eum Dominus spiritu oris sui. Alligabitur et demergetur in abyssum ignis aeterni uiuus cum patre suo Satan; et omnes, qui illius uoluntates perficiunt, cum eo in aeternum peribunt; iusti autem cum Domino haereditabunt uitam aeternam in saecula saeculorum.
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